Politik Perang Literasi: Sejarah Pendidikan Kristen

Elia Tambunan


Innocently, there are scholars of Christian education who see Christian history as clean of political interests an sich. The impact is bad. They have no political analysis competence. In fact, the praxis of education is intertwined with politics. With historical data around the early centuries of Roman Christianity (90-500 A.D), and with historiographical research, it was found that Christian educators also played literacy politics. Pauls writings in New Testament theology, the works of the Bishops, Presbyters, and Deacons, particularly the Roman West and Byzantine East regions under the persecution of several emperors had political tones. The literacy war is the determinant of success in penetrating teachings into the palace circle. Christianity succeeded in overthrowing the ideology of Romanism. Caesar is the guarantee of the freedom of believers in Christ, saving lives from massacre. This paper proposes that learning of political competence and educational literacy are very important at the level of Christian religious higher education and society.


Dengan polos, ada saja sarjana Pendidikan Kristen yang melihat sejarah agama Kristen bersih dari kepentingan politik secara an sich. Akibatnya buruk. Mereka tidak punya kecakapan analisis politik. Padahal, praksis pendidikan saling menganyam dengan politik. Dengan data sejarah di seputar abad awal kekristenan Romawi (tahun 90-500), dan dengan penelitian historiografi, ditemukan bahwa pendidik Kristen juga memainkan politik literasi. Tulisan Paulus dalam teologi Perjanjian Baru, karya Para Bishop, Presbiter, dan Diaken khususnya wilayah Barat Romawi dan wilayah Timur Bizantium di bawah persekusi beberapa emperor bertonasi politik. Perang literasi menjadi penentu sukses dalam melakukan penetrasi ajaran ke dalam lingkaran istana. Kekristenan sukses menumbangkan ideologi Romanisme. Kaisar adalah jaminan kebebasan orang beriman kepada Kristus, meluputkan nyawa dari pembantaian. Tulisan ini mengusulkan pembelajaran kecakapan politik dan literasi pendidikan sangat penting di aras pendidikan tinggi keagamaan Kristen dan masyarakat.


History of Christian Education, Political Movements and Literacy, Romanism Ideology


Anastos, M. V. (1967). The Edict of Milan (313) : A Defence of its Traditional Authorship and Designation. Revue Des Etudes Byzantines, 25, 13–41.

Attar, C. P. (2020). Faith and Reason: Disturbing Christian Doctrines. iUniverse Publisers.

Barnes, Timothy. D. (1981). Constantine and Eusebius. Harvard University Press.

Barnes, Timothy David. (1973). Lactantius and Constantine. The Journal of Roman Studies, 63, 29–46.

Betten, F. S. (n.d.). The Milan Decree of A. D. 313: Translation and Comment. The Catholic Historical Review, 8(2), 191–197.

Boehlke, R. R. (2015). Sejarah Perkembangan Pikiran dan Praktek Pendidikan Agama Kristen: Dari Plato Sampai IG. Loyola; Sejarah Perkembangan Pikiran dan Praktek Pendidikan Agama Kristen: Dari Yohanes Amos Comenius sampai Perkembangan PAK di Indonesia. BPK Gunung Mulia.

Brandt, Laubmann, D. M. (1893). Brandt, Laubmann, De Mortibus Persecutorum Corpus Script. Eccl. Lat. xxvii, Vienna, 1893, 12.

Burkhard, J. J. (1940). Apostolicity Then and Now: An Ecumenical Church in a Postmodern World. The Confraternity of Christian Doctrine.

Chisholm, H. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica Volumes 16 11th Edition. Cambridge University Press.

Constantineanu, C. (2010). The Social Significance of Reconciliation in Paul’s Theology: Narrative Readings in Romans. Bloomsbury Publishing PLC.

Corcoran, S. (1996). The Empire of the Tetrarchs: Imperial Pronouncements and Government, AD 284–324. Clarendon Press.

Corke-Webster, J. (2013). Violence and Authority in Eusebius of Caesarea’s Ecclesiastical History. The University of Mancheste.

Crossan, J. D. (2007). God and Empire: Jesus Against Rome, Then and Now. HarperOne.

Dorcey, P. F. (1992). The Cult of Silvanus: A Study in Roman Folk Religion. Brill.

Eusebius. (1999). Life of Constantine Introduction Translation, and Commentary by Averil Cameron and Stuart G. Hall. Clarendon Press.

Flesoras, C. D. (2009). The Historical Place and Character of Mentoring in Higher Education: A Study of Christian Formation in the Byzantine East. University of California.

Flick, A. C. (1911). The Rise of the Mediaeval Church.

G. A. Williamson, E. (1965). Eusebius, The History of the Church. Harmondsworth Publishers.

Garraghan, G. J. (1949). A Guide to Historical Method (New York: Fordham University Press. Fordham University Press.

Gibbon, E. (1872). The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Volume 1. Frederick Warne & Co.

Gonzáles, J. L. (2010). The Story of Christianity: The Early Church to the Dawn of the Reformation Volume 1. HarperCollins Publishers.

Gorski, P. S. (2020). American Babylon Christianity and Democracy Before and After Trump. Taylor & Francis.

Grayzel, S. (1968). The Jews and Roman Law. Jewish Quarterly Review, 2, 93–117.

Gregg, R. C. (1980). Athanasius: The Life of Antony and the Letter to Marcellinus, Classics of Western Spirituality. Paulist Press.

Healy, P. (1910). “Lucius Caecilius Firmianus Lactantius,” in The Catholic Encyclopedia Volume 8. Robert Appleton Company.

Janssen, K. P. S. (2020). Religio Illicita? Roman Legal Interactions with Early Christianity in Context. Leiden University.

Johannes Quasten, J. P. P. (1949). Ancient Christian Writers: The Work of the Fathers in Translation. The Newman Press.

John Dominic Crossan, J. L. R. (2007). In Search of Paul. HarperOne, 2007.

John N.D. Kelly. (1960). Early Christian Doctrines. Taylor & Francis.

Joyce, G. H. (n.d.). Private Penance in the Early Church. The Journal of Theological Studies, 42(165/166), 18–4.

Kee, A. (2016). Constantine Versus Christ: The Triumph of Ideology. WIPF & STOCK Publishers.

Klug, B. J. (2021). Culturally Relevant Teaching Making Space for Indigenous Peoples in the Schoolhouse. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Lactantius. (1964). The Divine Institutes: Books I–VII Translated by Mary Francis McDonald. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press.

Lactantius. (2003). Divine Institutes Translated with An Introduction and Notes by Anthony Bowen and Peter Garnsey. Liverpool University Press.

Lamberton, C. D. (n.d.). The Development of Christian Symbolism as Illustrated in Roman Catacomb Painting. American Journal of Archaeology, 15(4), 507–522.

Lane, T. (1984). The Lion Concise Book of Christian Thought. Lion Hudson Publishing PLC.

Lane, T. (2016). Runtut Pijar: Tokoh dan Pemikiran Kristen Kristen dari Masa ke Masa. Jakarta BPK Gunung Mulia.

Latourette, K. S. (1936). The First Five Centuries: A History of the Expansion of Christianity. Harper and Brothers.

Maclean, R. (2018). Freed Slaves and Roman Imperial Culture: Social Integration and the Transformation of Values. Cambridge University Press.

McCullagh, C. B. (1984). Justifying Historical Descriptions. Cambridge University Press.

McDonald, M. F. (1964). General Introduction The Divine Institutes: Books I–VII. Catholic University of America Press.

McGrath, A. E. (2013). Christian History: An Introduction. Wiley-Blackwell.

Michael J. Anthony, Warren S. Benson. (2011). Exploring the History and Philosophy of Christian Education: Principles for the 21st Century. Wipf & Stock.

Milla, F. (n.d.). The Political Character of the Classical Roman Republic, 200–151 B.C. The Journal of Roman Studies, 74, 1–19. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.2307/299003

Mortimer, R. C. (1939). The Origins of Private Penance in the Western Church. Clarendon Press.

Mortimer, R. C. (1947). The Elements of Moral Theology. Routledge.

Mortimer, R. C. (1950). Christian Ethics. Routledge.

Murray, G. W. (n.d.). The Roman Roads and Stations in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 11(1), 138–150.

O’Keefe, J. J. (2005). Religio Licita. Cambridge University Press.

Odahl, C. M. (2007). Constantine the Great and Christian Imperial Theocracy. Onnections: European Studies Annual Review, 3, 89–113.

Osborne, J. (1985). The Roman Catacombs in the Middle Ages. The Roman Catacombs in the Middle Ages,” Papers of the British School at Rome, 53, 278–328.

Pazmino, R. W. (2008). Foundational Issues in Christian Education An Introduction in Evangelical Perspective Third Edition (3rd ed.). Baker Academic, 2008), 129.

Perkins, J. (2008). New Identities: Pagan and Christian Narratives from the Roman Empire. Routledge.

Roots, P. A. (1987). The De Opificio Dei: The Workmanship of God and Lactantius. The Classical Quarterly, 37(2), 466–486.

S.J., C. K. (1910). Enchiridion Fontium Historiae Ecclesiasticae Antiquae. Herder.

Scahfer, P. (2003). The History of the Jews in the Greco-Roman World The Jews of Palestine from Alexander the Great to the Arab Conquest Revised Edition. Routledge.

Schaff, P. (1884). Nicene and Post-Nicene Christianity: From Constantine the Great to Gregory the Great AD 311-600. T & T Clark.

Schurer, E. (1891). A History of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ Volume 2. Harvard University Press.

Snyder, I. (2008). The Literacy Wars: Why Teaching Children to Read and Write is a Battleground in Australia. Allen & Unwin.

Stephen, D. C. (1992). The History of Christian Education. In M. J. Anthony (Ed.), Foundations of Ministry: An Introduction to Christian Education for a New Generation (pp. 37–52). Baker Publishing Group.

Stinger, C. (1997). “Italian Renaissance Learning and the Church Fathers,” in Irena Backus (ed.),The Reception of the Church Fathers in the West; From the Carolingians to the Maurists Volume 2. Leiden and New York, E.J. Brill, 1997.

Tambunan, Elia. (2019). INDONESIAN ISLAMISM: The War of Islamic Literacy from Millennialism to Radicalism. Akademika: Jurnal Pemikiran Islam, 9(18), 1–38. https://doi.org/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.32332/akademika.v24i1.1612

Tucker, R. W. (2016). Developing a Post-Apostolic Identity: Examining the Influence of Education within the Ancient Church and its role in the development of a Ductu in Primitiva Ecclesia. University of Newcastle.

Vaage, L. E. (2006). Religious Rivalries in the Early Roman Empire and the Rise of Christianity 2006). Canadian Corporation for Studies in Religion/Corporation Canadienne des Sciences Religieuses and Wilfrid Laurier University Press.

Vasiliev, A. A. (1948). Imperial Porphyry Sarcophagi in Constantinople.

Williams, S. (1985). Diocletian and the Roman Recovery. Routledge.

Wilson, N. G. (1992). From Byzantium to Italy: Greek Studies in the Italian Renaissance. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.47530/edulead.v2i2.81


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Dr. Elia Tambunan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Indexed By:


Published by: Sekolah Tinggi Agama Kristen Terpadu Pesat Salatiga
Institution Website: http://stak-pesat.ac.id/
Address: RT09/RW01, Desa Lopait, Kecamatan Tuntang, Kabupaten Semarang - Jawa Tengah
e-jurnal Website: http://stak-pesat.ac.id/e-journal/index.php/edulead/index
e-ISSN: 2722-5658 p-ISSN: 2722-645X

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA 4.0). 


View My Stats